The symposium will present recent advances in modern neuroscience, ranging from studies in animal models to human clinical trials, in relation to research of the most common, debilitating, and often undertreated condition affecting human health: pain. In the first lecture, Dr. Eduardo Souza-Silva will review the neurobiology of musculoskeletal nociception and the sensory role of histamine, a biogenic vasodilator amine involved in biochemical processes of the immune response. Also, the evidence found so far to validate the existence of a potential analgesic mechanism involving peripheral activation in the knee joint will be presented. The second presentation by Dr. José Biurrun Manresa, will be centered onhuman surrogate models of nociception and pain, describing how the knowledge from animal experiments is translated into human research, focusing on the development and assessment of models for central sensitization. Afterwards, Dr. Margarita Calvo, will present recent clinical findings demonstrating that chronic cutaneous injury can lead to injury and dysfunction of the most distal part of small sensory fibres in a length-dependent distribution resulting in disabling neuropathic pain. Finally, Dr. Pablo Brumovsky will review the antiallodynic and anti-inflammatory effects of IMT504, an oligodeoxynucleotide with immunomodulatory , in various animal pain models, as well as in a phase I-II clinical trials.